Coddenham Village History: The Duke’s Head

From Tudor times to the twenty-first century

From Tudor times

When ale and beer were safer to drink than water it was not necessary to have a licence to sell them provided good measure was sold. It is thus possible that the building that became the Duke’s Head was an ale house in Tudor times. Wines were subject to import tax so they could only be sold on licence (licensing acts came into force in the 19th century).

The Duke is a grade II listed building of about 1600 with 18th and 19th century alterations. It has a pebble-dashed exterior over a timber frame with 18th century casement windows on the first floor, 19th century sash windows and entrance door. The roof is plain tiled with one 20th century casement dormer window and an end chimney of red brick. Internally some late 16th or early 17th century framing is exposed with a blocked diamond-mullioned window and heavy unchamfered floor joists, suggesting to English Heritage an earlier core. ‘The left-hand section of the building was probably rebuilt C18,’ according to the listing.

Deep Blue Bellarmine jugs

Photo: Bellarmine jugs

Two so-called Bellarmine jugs of the seventeenth century found at the Duke’s Head in 1955 by Alfred Waspe, are reproduced from the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History report mentioned below. They help to date the building. The complete bottle is thought to be a ‘witch bottle’. The other was found in the garden and may have been used as a lamp.

What’s in a name?

The name of the pub probably refers to John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, born in 1504, executed in 1553 for leading the plot to crown Lady Jane Grey, his daughter-in-law. She, along with her husband, Guildford Dudley, suffered the same fate. Among other family members were Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, afterwards a favourite courtier of Elizabeth I, and Sir Henry Sidney, father of the poet Philip.

The family was Puritan in religious outlook, not inconsistent with public houses in those days. Many of Elizabeth’s courtiers were of that persuasion. The name of the pub may thus have been given in tribute to someone regarded as a martyr. Jane Grey had been intended to replace the Roman Catholic Mary Tudor, who married Philip king of Spain. He was to send the Armada against England in 1588.

We have no way of knowing how or when the Duke’s Head became an ale house. It was not uncommon for women with no other income to brew and sell beer. This was particularly so for widows and continued until recently. One widow succeeded her husband at the Duke’s Head in the 20th century (see below).

The Dukes Head Coddenham c1904

Photo: An old postcard of the Duke’s Head and High Street with generalized sign c1904

Landlords

Landlords of the Duke are known with some confidence from the list compiled, partly from census returns, by CAMRA (Campaign for Real Ale). William Chaplin is named in 1861 but only speculatively at the Duke’s Head. James Diggins is named in 1891 and Oliver Fosker in 1901, with Arthur Turner in 1911, identified as a licensed victualler. This meant he could sell food as well as beer.  Frederick Ellis succeeded him a year later.

On Frederick’s death in 1932 his wife, Ellen, took over. She maintained the licence, perhaps with her son-in-law Alfred Waspe, until 1970.  He was reported in the Proceedings of Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History as having found a ‘witch bottle’ (shown above) beneath the hearth. This contained several corroded pins, suggesting they had once been used as a protective or apotropaic device against evil, perhaps by piercing a heart-shaped piece of fabric. The bottle was 17th century in date, giving a possible date for construction of the hearth. It might thus have been a charm against witchcraft, with local witchfinder Matthew Hopkins active at that time. Alternatively, given the Puritan beliefs of people in Coddenham, it may have related to King James II, deposed for attempting to reintroduce Roman Catholicism to England. Gordon Parker became licensee in 1970, David and Eileen Smith held the licence in 1981 and in 1987 Ronald Cole followed.

The Ellis family at the Dukes Head in Coddenham

Photo: The Ellis family at the Duke’s Head. There was no sign in their day (EADT 1990).

Mrs Ellis at the Dukes Head Coddenham

Photo: Mrs Ellis as sole licensee after Frederick Ellis died. And the well which is no longer visible.

High Street Coddenham 1935 Jubilee

Photo: The Duke’s Head decorated as part of the Coddenham celebration of the jubilee of George V in 1935, three years after Frederick Ellis died.

High Street Coddenham 1935 Jubilee

Photo: Mr & Mrs Alfred Waspe

The Letter

During the second world war the Duke’s Head became popular with American servicemen in the Coddenham area. One of them wrote afterwards to Mrs. Ellis: 

“If I lived to be a 100 years old I could never forget the kindness of you and your family. Believe me when I say that the most enjoyable moments I spent in your home. I always felt that your place was my home in England.

It is people like you, your family and friends in Coddenham that have done more to cement relations between our countries than all the diplomats in the world could have done. From my contact with you I understand the English and their viewpoints and you understand me.”

The Sign

The pub sign was replaced with a generalized ‘duke’ a few years before closure. Coddenham Village History Club questioned the use of this sign and an image of Dudley was restored. There is a bust in relief of a bearded man facing the road above the door.

Bust of bearded man above doorway of the Dukes Head Pub
Tolly Cobbold pub sign Dukes Head

Photo: The original pub sign gave John Dudley’s date of birth wrongly as 1502.

The 1970’s

When Gordon Parker became licensee in 1970, food was introduced. He was the chef and his wife Georgia was “front of house.” It became a very popular place to both eat and drink, attracting customers from far and wide. Favourable comments appeared on the CAMRA website.

Giles – the cartoonist

The Dukes Head was often used as a watering hole by Karl Giles the cartoonist. He was an astute judge of character and not much escaped him. There are some men here who may have been recognizable to older members of the community! Cartoons from EADT (East Anglian Daily Times).

Tolly Cobbold pub sign Dukes Head
Tolly Cobbold pub sign Dukes Head

The 1980 – 2014

David and Eileen Smith held the licence in 1981 and 1982. In 1987 Ronald Cole followed. The Duke’s Head finally closed in 2014, a few years after being purchased from the brewer Tolly Cobbold, with staff on a basis of tenancy.

Dukes Head modern day colours

Present Day

Several attempts were made by the purchaser to obtain planning permission for houses on the garden area of the pub but all were rejected. A group of local people tried to lease the premises as a community pub, without success. Briefly there seemed a possibility that the owner might agree to link their plan to a coffee shop and food outlet but negotiations again failed.

Public house to private dwelling

A final proposal was made, to change use from public house to private dwelling and restore the building. This was agreed on condition that any archaeological or historical evidence that might be discovered during the work be recorded and if possible preserved. While further witch bottles are unlikely there may perhaps be burn marks, as are found in other old buildings in Coddenham. It is thought these were also apotropaic signs to ward off fire risks. Another possibility, as has been recorded in one cottage, would be to discover a mummified cat. Details of the mullioned window should also be recorded.

Sylvia Bickers and John Pelling
December 2020

5 Comments

  1. Paul T

    What were the buildings on the chimney side shown in the earlier photographs?
    And what happened to them and the well?

    Reply
    • Ray Collins

      Hi Paul. We do not know exactly what the extension was used for but it seems to have curtains so maybe an extra bar ? We have a faded photograph of The Dukes Head showing a cottage between the well and “Oakwell”. We are assuming that the cottage was removed around 1904 and the well and extension possibly in the 50’s to allow for car parking. Interestingly my mother, who once lived at Moss Cottage, had a clause in her deeds giving her access to the well to draw water even though the well was by then covered over. Not having a pneumatic drill she never exercised her right. If anyone has more information on this subject please let us know

      Reply
      • Paul T

        Thanks for the update Ray. So many places have stories to tell that get lost in time. Glad you are preserving some of Coddenhams. It would be interesting to see the other photograph you mention and maybe add that to the article if suitable.

        Reply
  2. Maria Dixon

    I live at Four Steps Cottage in the High Street which, according to photographs, was once 4 individual dwellings. I would love to know the history of the building. When it was made into one house, when the 4th house was demolished etc.

    Reply
    • Ray Collins

      Hi Maria – the History Club has previously made a survey of the buildings in the village but we have almost no information on Four Steps although the thoughts are that it may have been one house divided up into smaller ones at one time. The various census’s show that this was a crowded part of the village in the 1800s. We are looking to see if we have any other info and will let you know.

      Reply

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